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Cellular Ca and Ca M/CMLs include, among others, transcriptional reprogramming, regulation of metabolism, or the control of cell division and polarity (Hepler, 2005).

These phenotypes are reminiscent of plants with mutations in tubulin subunits (Ishida et al., 2007) and several MAPs (Buschmann et al., 2004; Sedbrook et al., 2004).Collectively, the limited evidence points to regulatory roles of IQD proteins in Ca-Ca M signaling and plant development.) signaling and dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton are essential processes for the coordination and control of plant cell shape and cell growth.Calmodulin (Ca M) and closely related calmodulin-like (CML) polypeptides are principal sensors of Ca signals.Ca M/CMLs decode and relay information encrypted by the second messenger via differential interactions with a wide spectrum of targets to modulate their diverse biochemical activities.

The plant-specific IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) family emerged as possibly the largest class of Ca M-interacting proteins with undefined molecular functions and biological roles.Therefore, it is likely that signaling scaffolds analogous to IQGAP proteins evolved in plants for Ca signaling in plants, extensive efforts have been made to identify Ca M/CML-binding proteins (Ca MBPs).More than 300 Ca MBPs are currently known, which include transporters and channels, metabolic enzymes, transcription factors, myosins, and various proteins of undefined functions that mostly interact with either holo-Ca M or apo-Ca M (Reddy et al., 2011).Here, we show that the 33 members of the IQD family in Arabidopsis () differentially localize, using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins, to multiple and distinct subcellular sites, including microtubule (MT) arrays, plasma membrane subdomains, and nuclear compartments.Intriguingly, the various IQD-specific localization patterns coincide with the subcellular patterns of IQD-dependent recruitment of Ca M, suggesting that the diverse IQD members sequester Ca cells transiently expressing GFP-IQD fusions and observed IQD-specific MT patterns, which point to a role of IQDs in MT organization and dynamics.Several studies implicated Ca-Ca M signaling in the control of cytoskeleton organization and dynamics (Hepler, 2016).