Argyris c 1976 single loop and double loop models in research on decision making

In single and double loop learning employees are notified of changes through orders, memos and directives issued by authorities.Unfortunately, this often leads to cynicism, de-motivation and defensiveness, which in turn leads to reduced cooperation.It suggests that Israel’s engagement with the climate change mitigation agenda, displaying an evident pattern of diffusion by emulating developed countries, is significantly motivated by considerations of internal, rather than external, legitimacy, contrary to expectations.

A double-loop model is proposed as providing feedback and more effective decision making.

ABSTRACT: Trade-offs are manifestations of the complex dynamics in interdependent social-ecological systems.

Based on process observation and interviews with participants and scientists, our analysis suggests that this process lead to increased appreciation of interdependences and the way in which trade-offs emerge from complex dynamics of interdependent factors.

The process seemed to provoke a reflection of knowledge assumptions and narratives, and management goals for the social-ecological system.

People do not always perceive change within organizations as something positive.

Employees do not always see the point and they are resistant when they have to deviate from old habits.

What were the considerations of the managers and the employees to adopt certain procedures? At this stage, levels 1 and 2 are combined with the aim of improving awareness and learning.

People learn from the mistakes of the present and the past and they must be capable of admitting this.

However, this ignores the real cause of the problem.

This form of learning will go more deeply into the cause of the problem and feedback is used to look at past actions.

Addressing trade-offs involves challenges of perception due to the dynamics of interdependence.